Coacervates and Soft Interfaces

Radboud University

Institute for Molecules and Materials


Structure-Property Relationships Governing Membrane-Penetrating Behaviour of Complex Coacervates

Tiemei Lu, Xinyu Hu, Merlijn H. I. van Haren, Evan Spruijt, Wilhelm T. S. Huck

Dynamics and Composition of Small Heat Shock Protein Condensates and Aggregates

Joep Joosten, Bob van Sluijs, Wilma Vree Egberts, Martin Emmaneel, Pascal WTC Jansen, Michiel Vermeulen, Wilbert Boelens, Kimberly M Bonger, Evan Spruijt

Phase-separated droplets can direct the kinetics of chemical reactions including polymerization, self-replication and oscillating networks
Iris B. A. Smokers‡, Brent S. Visser‡, Wojciech P. Lipiński, Karina K. Nakashima, and Evan Spruijt
ChemRxiv (2024)
pdf |10.26434/chemrxiv-2024-xzl0t

Molecular Crowding: The History and Development of a Scientific Paradigm
Caterina Alfano, Yann Fichou, Klaus Huber, Matthias Weiss, Evan Spruijt, Simon Ebbinghaus, Giuseppe De Luca, Maria Agnese Morando, Valeria Vetri, Piero Andrea Temussi, and Annalisa Pastore
Chemical Reviews (2024)
pdf | doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.3c00615

Selective amide bond formation in redox-active coacervate protocells
Jiahua Wang, Manzar Abbas, Junyou Wang, Evan Spruijt
Nature Communications (2023)
pdf | doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-44284-x

Interfacing Coacervates with Membranes: From Artificial Organelles and Hybrid Protocells to Intracellular Delivery
Tiemei Lu, Sadaf Javed, Claudia Bonfio, and Evan Spruijt
Small Methods (2023)
pdf | doi: 10.1002/smtd.202300294

In Vitro Transcription–Translation in an Artificial Biomolecular Condensate
Ludo L. J. Schoenmakers, N. Amy Yewdall, Tiemei Lu, Alain A. M. André, Frank. H.T. Nelissen, Evan Spruijt, and Wilhelm T. S. Huck
ACS Synth. Biol. (2023)
pdf doi: 10.1021/acssynbio.3c00069

Fibrils emerging from droplets: Molecular guiding principles behind phase transitions of short peptide-based condensates
Wojciech P. Lipiński, Johannes Zehnder, Manzar Abbas, Peter Güntert, Evan Spruijt, Thomas Wiegand
Chemistry A European Journal (2023)
pdf (pdf, 1.3 MB) | doi: 10.1002/chem.202301159

Dynamics and composition of small heat shock protein condensates and aggregates
Joep Joosten, Bob van Sluijs, Wilma Vree Egberts, Martin Emmaneel, Pascal WTC Jansen, Michiel Vermeulen, Wilbert Boelens, Kimberly M Bonger, Evan Spruijt
Journal of Molecular Biology (2023)
pdf (pdf, 1.3 MB) | doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2023.168139

Structure-Property Relationships Governing Membrane-Penetrating Behaviour of Complex Coacervates
Tiemei Lu, Xinyu Hu, Merlijn H. I. van Haren, Evan Spruijt, and Wilhelm T. S. Huck
Small (2023)
pdf (pdf, 0.6 MB) | doi: 10.1002/smll.202303138

Open questions on liquid–liquid phase separation
Evan Spruijt
Communications Chemistry (2023)
pdf (pdf, 0.6 MB) | doi: 10.1038/s42004-023-00823-7

Peptide-based liquid droplets as emerging delivery vehicles
Jianhui Liu, Evan Spruijt, Ali Miserez & Robert Langer
Nature Reviews Materials (2023)
doi: 10.1038/s41578-022-00528-8

Growth, replication and division enable evolution of coacervate protocells
Annemiek Slootbeek, Merlijn van Haren, Iris B.A. Smokers, Evan Spruijt
Chem. Commun. (2022)
pdf (pdf, 2 MB) | doi: 10.1039/D2CC03541C

ATP:Mg2+ shapes condensate properties of rRNA-NPM1 in vitro nucleolus model and its partitioning of ribosomes
N. Amy Yewdall, Alain A. M. André, Merlijn H. I. van Haren, Frank H.T. Nelissen, Aafke Jonker, Evan Spruijt
Biophysical Journal (2022)
pdf (pdf, 2,1 MB) | doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2022.08.025

Crowding-induced phase separation and solidification by co-condensation of PEG in NPM1-rRNA condensates
Alain A.M. André, N. Amy Yewdall, Evan Spruijt
Biophysical Journal (2022)
pdf (pdf, 16 MB) | doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2022.12.001

Peptide-Based Coacervate-Core Vesicles with Semipermeable Membranes
Manzar Abbas, Jack O. Law, Sushma N. Grellscheid, Wilhelm T. S. Huck, Evan Spruijt
Advanced Materials (2022)
pdf (pdf, 4,5 MB) | doi: 10.1002/adma.20220291

Biomolecular condensates can both accelerate and suppress aggregation of α-synuclein
Wojciech P. Lipiński, Brent S. Visser, Irina Robu, Mohammad A. A. Fakhree,
Saskia Lindhoud, Mireille M. A. E. Claessens, Evan Spruijt
Science Advances (2022)
pdf (pdf, 2,4 MB) | doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abq6495

Endocytosis of coacervates into liposomes
Tiemei Lu, Susanne Liese, Ludo Schoenmakers, Christoph Weber, Hiroaki Suzuki, Wilhelm Huck, Evan Spruijt
J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2022)
pdf (pdf, 1,4 MB) | doi: 10.1021/jacs.2c04096.

Complex coacervation and compartmentalized conversion of prebiotically relevant metabolites
Iris B. A. Smokers, Merlijn H. I. van Haren, Tiemei Lu, Evan Spruijt
ChemSystemsChem (2022)
pdf (pdf, 5,4 MB) | doi: 10.1002/syst.202200004

Tailoring supramolecular short peptide nanomaterials for antibacterial applications
Manzar Abbas, Muhammad Ovais, Atia Atiq, Tariq Mahmood Ansari, Ruirui Xing, Evan Spruijt, Xuehai Yan
Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 460 (2022)
pdf (pdf, 5,4 MB) | doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2022.214481

Selective amide bond formation in redox-active coacervate protocells (preprint)
Jiahua Wang, Manzar Abbas, Junyou Wang, Evan Spruijt
ChemRxiv (2021)
pdf (pdf, 7,5 MB) | doi:10.26434/chemrxiv-2021-1zt9k

A short peptide synthon for liquid-liquid phase separation
Manzar Abbas, Wojciech P. Lipiński, Karina K. Nakashima, Wilhelm T. S. Huck and Evan Spruijt*
Nature Chemistry, 13,  (2021)
pdf (pdf, 3,2 MB)doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00788-x

Active coacervate droplets are protocells that grow and resist Ostwald ripening
Karina K. Nakashima, Merlijn H. I. van Haren, Alain A. M. André, Irina Robu and Evan Spruijt*
Nature Communications, 12, 3819 (2021)
pdf (pdf, 3,2 MB)| doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24111-x

Temperature-Responsive Peptide−Nucleotide Coacervates
Published as part of The Journal of Physical Chemistry virtual special issue “Liquid−Liquid Phase Separation”.
Tiemei Lu, Karina K. Nakashima, and Evan Spruijt*
Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 125, 12, 3080–3091 (2021)
pdf (pdf, 3,6 MB) | doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.0c10839

Peptide-based coacervates as biomimetic protocells
Manzar Abbas†, Wojciech P. Lipiński†, Jiahua Wang and Evan Spruijt*
Chemical Society Reviews
, 50,  3690–3705 (2021)
pdf (pdf, 8,8 MB) | doi: 10.1039/d0cs00307g 

A Multiresponsive Transformation between Surfactant-Based Coacervates and Vesicles
Lili Zhou, Yaxun Fan*, Zhang Liu , Lina Chen , Evan Spruijt* and Yilin Wang
CCS Chemistry, 3, 358–366 (2021)
pdf (pdf, 2,7 MB) | doi:10.31635/ccschem.021.202000702

Coacervates as models of membraneless organelles
N. Amy Yewdall, Alain A. M. André, Tiemei Lu, Evan Spruijt
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science
, 52,101416 (2021)
pdf (pdf, 2 MB) |doi: 10.1016/j.cocis.2020.101416

Transcription and Translation in Cytomimetic Protocells Perform Most Efficiently at Distinct Macromolecular Crowding Conditions
Mahesh A. Vibhute, Mark H. Schaap, Roel J.M. Maas, Frank H.T. Nelissen, Evan Spruijt, Hans A. Heus, Maike Hansen* and Wilhelm T.S. Huck*
ACS Synthetic Biology
, 9, 2797–2807 (2020)
pdf (pdf, 5 MB)doi: org/10.1021/acssynbio.0c00330

Liquid-liquid phase separation in crowded environments
André, A.A.M. & Spruijt, E.
International Journal of Molecular Science
,21, 5908 (2020)
pdf (pdf, 2,6 MB) | doi: 10.3390/ijms21165908

Coacervate-based protocells: integration of life-like properties in a droplet
Van Haren, M.H.I., Nakashima, K.K. & Spruijt, E.*
Journal of Systems Chemistry, 8, 107-120 (2020)
pdf (pdf, 1,8 MB)

Enzymatic control over coacervation
Nakashima, K.K.†, André, A.A.M. † & Spruijt, E.*
Methods in Enzymology 646, 1684 (2020)
pdf (pdf, 1,4 MB) | doi: 10.1016/bs.mie.2020.06.007

Layering of bidisperse charged nanoparticles in sedimentation
Xu, X., Biesheuvel, P.M., Cölfen, H. & Spruijt, E.*
Soft Matter 16, 4718-4722 (2020)
pdf (pdf, 2,4 MB) | doi: 10.1039/D0SM00588F

Multiphase complex coacervate droplets
Tiemei Lu and Evan Spruijt*
Journal of the American Chemical Society 
142, 6, 2905–2914 (2020)
pdf | doi: 10.1021/jacs.9b11468

Biomolecular chemistry in liquid phase separated compartments
Karina K. Nakashima, Mahesh A. Vibhute and Evan Spruijt*
Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
6, 21, 1-9 (2019)
pdf | doi:10.3389/fmolb.2019.00021

Rigidity rules in DNA droplets: Nucleic acid flexibility affects model membraneless organelles (New and Notable)
Alain A. M. André and Evan Spruijt*
Biophysical Journal
115, 1837-1839 (2018)
pdf (pdf, 379 kB) | doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2018.09.023


Reversible generation of coacervate droplets in an enzymatic network
Karina K. Nakashima, Jochem F. Baaij and Evan Spruijt*
Soft Matter
14, 361-367 (2018).
pdf (pdf, 2,8 MB) | supporting info (pdf, 492 kB) | doi:10.1039/c7sm01897e (verwijst naar een andere website)


Dissipative adaptation in driven self-assembly leading to self-dividing fibrils
Esra te Brinke, Joost Groen, Andreas Herrmann, Hans A. Heus, Germán Rivas, Evan Spruijt*, and Wilhelm T. S. Huck*
Nature Nanotechnology 13, (2018).
doi: 10.1038/s41565-018-0192-1


DNA scaffolds support stable and uniform peptide nanopores
Evan Spruijt*, Samuel E. Tusk and Hagan Bayley*
Nature Nanotechnology
13, 739-745 (2018).
doi: 10.1038/s41565-018-0139-6 (verwijst naar een andere website)


  • Enhanced transcription rates in membrane-free protocells formed by coacervation of cell lysate
    Ekaterina Sokolova, Evan Spruijt, Maike M. K. Hansen, Emilien Dubuc, Joost Groen, Venkat Chokkalingam, Aigars Piruska, Hans A. Heus and Wilhelm T. S. Huck
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 11692-11697 (2013).
    pdf (pdf, 671 kB) | supporting info (pdf, 1,1 MB) | doi:10.1073/pnas.1222321110
    movie 1 (mp4, 712 bytes)
  • Structure and dynamics of polyelectrolyte complex coacervates studied by scattering of neutrons, X-rays, and light.
    Evan Spruijt*, Frans A. M. Leermakers, Remco Fokkink, Ralf Schweins, Ad A. van Well, Martien A. Cohen Stuart and Jasper van der Gucht*
    Macromolecules 46, 4595-4605 (2013).
    pdf (pdf, 1,5 MB) | supporting info (pdf, 298 kB) | doi:10.1021/ma400132s
  • Linear viscoelasticity of polyelectrolyte complex coacervates.
    Evan Spruijt*, Martien A. Cohen Stuart and Jasper van der Gucht*
    Macromolecules 46, 1633-1641 (2013).
    pdf (pdf, 2,3 MB) | supporting info (pdf, 841 kB) | doi:10.1021/ma301730n
  • Strength, structure and stability of polyelectrolyte complex coacervates.
    Evan Spruijt, PhD thesis, Wageningen University (2012).
    pdf (pdf, 8,1 MB) | link
  • On the stability and morphology of complex coacervate core micelles: from spherical to wormlike micelles.
    Hanne M. van der Kooij, Evan Spruijt, Ilja K. Voets, Remco Fokkink, Martien A. Cohen Stuart and Jasper van der Gucht
    Langmuir 28, 14180-14191 (2012).
    pdf (pdf, 1,9 MB) | supporting info (pdf, 200 kB) | doi:10.1021/la303211b
  • Direct measurement of the strength of single ionic bonds between hydrated charges.
    Evan Spruijt*, Sebastiaan A. van den Berg, Martien A. Cohen Stuart and Jasper van der Gucht*
    ACS Nano  6, 5297-5303 (2012), highlighted: Nature Nanotechnology 7, 413 (2012).
    pdf (pdf, 1,3 MB) | supporting info (pdf, 215 kB) | doi:10.1021/nn301097y
  • Reversible assembly of oppositely charged hairy colloids in water.
    Evan Spruijt*, Henriëtte E. Bakker, Tom E. Kodger, Joris Sprakel, Martien A. Cohen Stuart and Jasper van der Gucht*
    Soft Matter  7, 8281-8290 (2011), highlighted RSC hot article, doi:10.1039/c1sm05881a
  • Review:  Polyelectrolyte complexes, bulk phases and colloidal systems.
    Jasper van der Gucht, Evan Spruijt, Marc Lemmers and Martien A. Cohen Stuart
    J. Coll. Interface Sci. 361, 407-422 (2011).
    pdf (pdf, 2,3 MB) | doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2011.05.080
  • Relaxation dynamics at different time scales in electrostatic complexes: time-salt superposition.
    Evan Spruijt*, Joris Sprakel, Marc Lemmers, Martien A. Cohen Stuart and Jasper van der Gucht*
    Phys. Rev. Lett.  105, 208301 (2010).
    pdf (pdf, 528 kB) | doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.208301
  • Binodal compositions of polyelectrolyte complexes.
    Evan Spruijt*, Adrie H. Westphal, Jan-Willem Borst, Martien A. Cohen Stuart and Jasper van der Gucht*
    Macromolecules 43, 6476-6484 (2010).
    pdf (pdf, 2,6 MB) | doi:10.1021/ma101031t
  • Interfacial tension between a complex coacervate phase and its coexisting aqueous phase.
    Evan Spruijt*, Joris Sprakel, Martien A. Cohen Stuart and Jasper van der Gucht*
    Soft Matter 6, 172-178 (2010).
    pdf (pdf, 673 kB) | doi:10.1039/b911541b

 —  Soft interfaces and other work

  • Wettability of amphoteric surfaces – the effect of pH and ionic strength on surface ionization and wetting.
    Ettore Virga, Evan Spruijt, Wiebe M. de Vos and P. M. Biesheuvel
    Langmuir, Just accepted (2018).
  • Macromolecular crowding creates heterogeneous environments of gene expression in picolitre droplets.
    Maike M. K. Hansen, Lenny H. H. Meijer, Evan Spruijt, Roel J. M. Maas, Marta Ventosa-Rosquelles, Joost Groen, Hans A. Heus and Wilhelm T. S. Huck
    Nature Nanotechnology 11, 191-198 (2016).
    supporting info (pdf, 2,7 MB) | doi:10.1038/NNANO.2015.243
  • Liquid filmification from menisci.
    Evan Spruijt, Erwan Le Guludec, Clément Lix, Marc Wagner and David Quéré
    Europhysics Letters 112, 16002 (2015).
    pdf (pdf, 655 kB) | doi:10.1209/0295-5075/112/16002
  • Adsorption of charged and neutral polymer chains on silica surfaces: the role of electrostatics, volume exclusion and hydrogen bonding.
    Evan Spruijt*, P. M. Biesheuvel and Wiebe M. de Vos
    Phys. Rev. E. 91, 012601 (2015).
    pdf (pdf, 511 kB) | doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.91.012601
  • Complexity of molecular crowding in cell-free enzymatic reaction networks.
    Evan Spruijt, Ekaterina Sokolova and Wilhelm T. S. Huck
    Nature Nanotechnology 9, 406-407 (2014).
    correspondence | reply | doi:10.1038/nnano.2014.110
  • Sedimentation dynamics and equilibrium profiles in multicomponent mixtures of colloidal particles.
    Evan Spruijt* and P. Maarten Biesheuvel*
    J. Phys. Condensed Matter 26, 075101 (2014).
    pdf (pdf, 609 kB) | supporting info (pdf, 264 kB) | doi:10.1088/0953-8984/26/7/075101
    movie 1 (mp4, 967 kB)movie 2 (mp4, 921 kB)movie 3 (mp4, 1 MB)movie 4 (mp4, 1 MB)movie 5 (mp4, 971 kB)movie 6 (mp4, 926 kB)movie 7 (mp4, 1,8 MB) | movie 8 (mp4, 1,8 MB)movie 9 (mp4, 477 kB)movie 10 (mp4, 2,6 MB)movie 11 (mp4, 2,5 MB)
  • Ultralow adhesion and friction of fluoro-hydro alkyne-derived self-assembled monolayers on H-terminated Si(111).
    Sidhu P. Pujari, Evan Spruijt, Martien A. Cohen Stuart, Cees J. M. van Rijn, Jos M. J. Paulusse and Han Zuilhof
    Langmuir 28, 17690-17700 (2012), doi:10.1021/la303893u
  • Physical gels based on charge-driven bridging of nanoparticles by triblock copolymers.
    Marc Lemmers, Evan Spruijt, Sabine Akerboom, Ilja K. Voets, Adriaan C. van Aelst, Martien A. Cohen Stuart and Jasper van der Gucht
    Langmuir 28, 12311-12318 (2012), doi:10.1021/la301917e
  • The influence of charge ratio on transient networks of polyelectrolyte complex micelles.
    Marc Lemmers, Evan Spruijt, Lennart Beun, Remco Fokkink, Frans A. M. Leermakers, Guiseppe Portale, Martien A. Cohen Stuart and Jasper van der Gucht
    Soft Matter 8, 104-117 (2012), doi:10.1039/C1SM06281F
  • On the stability of the polymer brushes formed by adsorption of ionomer complexes on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces.
    Agata M. Brzozowska, Evan Spruijt, Arie de Keizer, Martien A. Cohen Stuart and Willem Norde
    J. Colloid Interface Sci. 353, 380-391 (2011), doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2010.09.074
  • Dynamic force spectroscopy of oppositely charged polyelectrolyte brushes.
    Evan Spruijt*, Martien A. Cohen Stuart and Jasper van der Gucht
    Macromolecules 43, 1543-1550 (2010), doi:10.1021/ma902403a
  • Failure-mode transition in transient polymer networks with particle-based simulations.
    Joris Sprakel, Evan Spruijt, Jasper van der Gucht, Johan T. Padding and Wim J. Briels
    Soft Matter 5, 4748-4756 (2009), doi:10.1039/B910425A
  • Amine-terminated silicon nanoparticles: synthesis, optical properties and their use in bioimaging.
    Milena Rosso-Vasic, Evan Spruijt, Zoran Popvić, Karin Overgaag, Barend van Lagen, Bruno Grandidier, Daniel Vanmaekelbergh, David Domínguez-Gutiérrez, Luisa De Cola, and Han Zuilhof
    J. Mater. Chem. 19, 5926-5933 (2009), doi:10.1039/B902671A
  • Intermittent dynamics in transient polymer networks under shear: signs of self-organized criticality.
    Joris Sprakel, Evan Spruijt, Martien A. Cohen Stuart, M. A. J. Michels and Jasper van der Gucht
    Phys. Rev. E 79, 056306 (2009), doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.79.056306
  • Alkyl-functionalized oxide-free silicon nanoparticles: synthesis and optical properties.
    Milena Rosso-Vasic, Evan Spruijt, Barend van Lagen, Luisa De Cola and Han Zuilhof
    Small 4, 1835-1841 (2008), doi:10.1002/smll.200990114
  • Reversible electrochemical switching of polyelectrolyte brush surface energy using electroactive counterions.
    Evan Spruijt, Eun-Young Choi and Wilhelm. T. S. Huck
    Langmuir 24, 11253-11260 (2008), doi:10.1021/la801994b
  • Shear banding and rheochaos in associative polymer networks.
    Joris Sprakel, Evan Spruijt, Martien A. Cohen Stuart, Nicolaas A. M. Besseling, M. P. Lettinga and Jasper van der Gucht
    Soft Matter 4, 1696-1705 (2008), doi:10.1039/B803085E